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HYPERTENSION

The World  Health Organisation has estimated that high blood pressure causes one in every 8 deaths worldwide,  making hypertension the third leading killer in the world. Every individual has blood pressure which is necessary to move blood through the arteries and to provide oxygen to the tissue of the body. Normal blood pressure is when a people is lower than 120/80 mmHg.

The top/first number is called the systolic blood pressure. The bottom/second number is called diastolic blood pressure.  Systolic pressure measures the pressure when the heart contract and diastolic blood pressure measures pressure when the heart relaxes between two consecutive heartbeats. Hypertension is a common public health problem in developed countries. Untreated hypertension leads to many degenerative diseases, including Heart failure,  Chronic Kidney Disease and Peripheral Vascular Disease. It is often called a "Silent Killer" because people with hypertension can be asymptomatic for years and then have the fatal stroke or heart attack. Although no cure is available, hypertension is easily detected and usually controllable.

 

  • CLASSIFICATION OF HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE

BP CLASSIFICATION

SYSTOLIC BP,

         mmHg

Diastolic BP,

mmHg

Normal

<120

<80

Pre-hypertension

120-139

80-89

Stage 1 hypertension

140-159

90-99

Stage 2 hypertension

>160

>100

 Causes of Hypertension

  • Essential Hypertension: There is no known cause of hypertension and this is known as Essential Hypertension or Idiopathic Hypertension.
  • Secondary Hypertension: High Blood pressure can be a result of another medical condition or some medications such as Chronic Kidney Disease, Disorder of adrenal glands such as Cushing's syndrome, pre-eclampsia in pregnancy and hyperparathyroidism

 WHO ARE AT RISK?

  • Advancing Age
  • Sex (men and postmenopausal women)
  • Family history of cardiovascular disease
  • Sedentary lifestyle & psycho-social stress
  • Obesity
  • Co-existing disorders such as Diabetes and Dyslipidemia
  • High intake of alcohol and Smoking

 

  • MEASURES FOR PREVENTING AND CONTROLLING HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE: Lifestyle Modification

 

 

MODIFICATION

RECOMMENDATION

APPROXIMATE SBP REDUCTION

Weight Reduction

Maintain normal body weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2 )

5-20 mmHg/10 kg

Adopt DASH diet

(Dietary approaches to stop hypertension)

Consume a diet rich in fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy products with reduced content of saturated and total fat

8-14 mmHg

Dietary Sodium Reduction

Reduced dietary sodium intake to 2.4 g sodium or 6g sodium chloride

2-8 mmHg

Physical Activity

Engage in regular aerobic physical activity such as brisk walking (at least 30 min per day)

4-9 mmHg

 

Moderation of Alcohol consumption

Limit consumption to no more than 2 drinks/day (e.g.24 oz beer, 10 oz wine, or 3 oz whiskey) in  most men and 1drink/day in women

2-4 mmHg

 

 This is Copyright Content by Gadge's Diabetes Care Edited and written by Madiha Khan

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