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Cholecystitis is inflammation of gallbladder and it may be acute or chronic. Inflammation of gallbladder caused by gallstones obstructing the bile ducts leading to the backup of bile is known as calculous cholecystitis.  Acalculous cholecystitis is an inflammatory disease of gallbladder without evidence of gallstones.

Acute cholecystitis :

  • Acalculous cholecystitis (without stones) may occur in critically ill patients or when gallbladder and its bile are stagnant.
  • Impaired gallbladder emptying occurs due to diminished contractile activity and decreased contractile response to hormone Cholecystokinin which causes the gallbladder to contract releasing bile.
  • The wall of gallbladder become inflamed and distended and infection can occur.
  • The most common presenting symptom of acute cholecystitis is Upper abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, flatulence, fever and sepsis.
  • In the acute attack, oral feedings are discontinued and the patient should receive nothing by mouth. Hydration and intravenous fluid should be provided.
  • Acute cholecystitis may require surgical removal of the gallbladder (cholecystectomy) unless medically contraindicated.


 Chronic cholecystitis :

  • It is a long-standing inflammation of gallbladder and risk factors include the presence of gallstones and history of acute cholecystitis.
  • Chronic cholecystitis occurs more often in women than in men, and incidence increase after the age of 40.
  • Caused by repeated, mild attacks of acute cholecystitis, this lead to thickenings of the gallbladder wall and thus gallbladder begins to shrink and eventually loses its ability to perform the function: concentrating and storage of bile.
  • As bile is needed to digest fat, eating foods that are high in fat may aggravate the symptoms of chronic cholecystitis
  • Therefore, the patient with chronic conditions may require a long-term, low-fat diet and administration of water-soluble forms of fat-soluble vitamins may be beneficial in the patient in whom fat malabsorption is suspected.



 This is Copyright Content by Gadge's Diabetes Care Edited and written by Madiha Khan





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