- The presence of gallstones does not always produce symptoms. If a gallstone slips into the bile ducts it may lead to obstruction, pain, and cramps. Gallstones pain may last for several minutes to few hours.
TYPES OF GALLSTONES & RISK FACTORS
- Cholesterol Gallstones: Most of the gallstones are unpigmented cholesterol composed of cholesterol, bilirubin, and calcium salts. Bacteria also play a role in gallstones formation.
Risk factors for Cholesterol Gallstones
- Female gender
- Older age
- Family History
- Diabetes Mellitus
- Inflammatory Bowel Disease
- Drugs such as Lipid-lowering medications, oral contraceptives and estrogens
- High Fat Intake
- Rapid Weight Loss
- Certain ethnics groups including Pima Indians, Mexican-Americans, Native-Americans are at greater risk of stone formation.
- Pigmented Gallstones: It typically consist of bilirubin polymers or calcium salts. They are associated with chronic hemolysis.
Risk factors for Pigmented Gallstones
- Sickle cell Anemia
- Cholecystitis: Inflammation of the gallbladder is known cholecystitis.
- Secondary Biliary Cirrhosis: Bile backup into the liver can due to the presence of gallstones in the common bile duct result in Jaundice and liver damage.
- Pancreatitis: If pancreatic duct is blocked due to gallstones it can lead to pancreatitis.
- Gall Bladder Cancer: People with the history of Gallstones have the high risk of gallbladder cancer.
- Cholecystectomy: Surgical removal of Gall Bladder
- Litholytic Therapy: Chemical dissolution of the stones by administration of bile salts.
- Dissolution by Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy(ESWL)
- Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography techniques may use in patients with gallstones migrated into bile ducts.
- No specific dietary treatment is available to prevent gallstones formation.
- Consumption of large amounts of animal proteins and animal fats, especially saturated fat promote gallstones formation.
- Include high fiber, low-fat, plant-based diet as vegetarian diet are high in fiber and low in fat, consisting primarily of unsaturated fat.
- Replacing simple sugars and refined starches with high- fiber carbohydrates.
- Healthy weight loss and physical activity will reduce the risk of cholecystitis.
This is Copyright Content by Gadge's Diabetes Care Edited and written by Madiha Khan