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GALLSTONES: TYPES, RISKS , COMPLICATIONS & TREATMENT

The formation of Gallstones is cholelithiasis. Gallstones disease affects millions of people each year and causes significant morbidity. Virtually all gallstones from within the gallbladder. The gallbladder lies on the undersurface of the right lobe of the liver. The main function of the gallbladder is to concentrate, store, and excreted bile which is produced by the liver. Gallstones can pass from the gallbladder into the common bile duct may remain there with or without any symptoms or they may pass into the duodenum.

SYMPTOMS :

  • The presence of gallstones does not always produce symptoms. If a gallstone slips into the bile ducts it may lead to obstruction, pain, and cramps. Gallstones pain may last for several minutes to few hours.

 TYPES OF GALLSTONES & RISK FACTORS

 

  • Cholesterol Gallstones: Most of the gallstones are unpigmented cholesterol composed of cholesterol, bilirubin, and calcium salts. Bacteria also play a role in gallstones formation.

 Risk factors for Cholesterol Gallstones

  • Female gender
  • Pregnancy
  • Older age
  • Family History
  • Obesity
  • Diabetes Mellitus
  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease
  • Drugs such as Lipid-lowering medications, oral contraceptives and estrogens
  • High Fat Intake
  • Rapid Weight Loss
  • Certain ethnics groups including Pima Indians, Mexican-Americans, Native-Americans are at greater risk of stone formation.

 

  • Pigmented Gallstones: It typically consist of bilirubin polymers or calcium salts. They are associated with chronic hemolysis.

 Risk factors for Pigmented Gallstones

  • Age
  • Sickle cell Anemia
  • Thala
  • ssemia
  • Cirrhosis
  • Alcoholism

 COMPLICATIONS :

 

  • Cholecystitis: Inflammation of the gallbladder is known cholecystitis.
  • Secondary Biliary Cirrhosis: Bile backup into the liver can due to the presence of gallstones in the common bile duct result in Jaundice and liver damage.
  • Pancreatitis: If pancreatic duct is blocked due to gallstones it can lead to pancreatitis.
  • Gall Bladder Cancer: People with the history of Gallstones have the high risk of gallbladder cancer.

 TREATMENT :

 

  • Cholecystectomy: Surgical removal of Gall Bladder
  • Litholytic Therapy: Chemical dissolution of the stones by administration of bile salts.
  • Dissolution by Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy(ESWL)
  • Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography techniques may use in patients with gallstones migrated into bile ducts.

 DIETARY MANAGEMENT:

  • No specific dietary treatment is available to prevent gallstones formation.
  • Consumption of large amounts of animal proteins and animal fats, especially saturated fat promote gallstones formation.
  • Include high fiber, low-fat, plant-based diet as vegetarian diet are high in fiber and low in fat, consisting primarily of unsaturated fat.
  • Replacing simple sugars and refined starches with high- fiber carbohydrates.
  • Healthy weight loss and physical activity will reduce the risk of cholecystitis.

 

 This is Copyright Content by Gadge's Diabetes Care Edited and written by Madiha Khan

 

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