Diabetic nephropathy is one of the chronic vascular complication of diabetes, which develop after several years of diabetes and results in progressive damage and loss of kidney function. Functional changed occur in the nephrons functional units of the kidney. Diabetic nephropathy is also called as Diabetic Kidney Disease (DKD). Diabetic nephropathy has become the most common single cause of End-stage renal disease (ESRD) and is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. Earliest clinical evidence of nephropathy is an appearance of albumin in urine, known as microalbuminuria. Microalbuminuria is also a marker of increased CVD risk. An annual screen for microalbuminuria should be performed in patients who have had T1DM for more than 5years, and in all Patients with type 2 DM at diagnosis.
Gestational diabetes (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance of variable degree with onset or first recognition during the present pregnancy. The incidence of gestational diabetes is 15-17 percent in Indian pregnant women. After delivery, approximately 90% of all women with GDM become normoglycemic but are at increased risk of developing GDM earlier in subsequent pregnancies
Hyperglycemia can lead to a metabolic complication known as Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA). It is a life-threatening but reversible complication, cause due to insulin deficiency and characterized by the severe disturbance in carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism. DKA is commonly seen in Type 1 diabetes, however, it can also occur in the patient with type 2 diabetes.
Insulin is a hormone; a chemical messenger produced in one part of the body to have an action on another. It is a protein responsible for regulating blood glucose levels as part of metabolism.
HbA1c is a term commonly used in relation to diabetes. This guide explains what HbA1c is, how it differs from blood glucose levels and how it's used for diagnosing diabetes.
People with diabetes can have an eye disease called diabetic retinopathy. This is when high blood sugar levels cause damage to blood vessels in the retina. These blood vessels can swell and leak. Or they can close, stopping blood from passing through. Sometimes abnormal new blood vessels grow on the retina. All of these changes can steal your vision.
What is a Hypo: Hypo Causes, Symptoms and Treatment
A hypo occurs when blood sugar falls below 70 mg/dl.
A hypo (hypoglycaemia) is triggered when blood sugar levels fall under 70 mg/dl.
Too much insulin or too little food can spark a hypo.
This guide details what hypoglycaemia is, how to recognise hypo symptoms, and what to do when you or your child is suffering from a hypo (hypoglycaemia).
Foot ulcers are a common complication of poorly controlled and long-standing diabetes, forming as a result of skin tissue breaking down and exposing the layers underneath. They are most common on your big toes and the balls of your feet, and they can affect your feet down to the bones.